Andrew Norman shared with me a very interesting observation he made, and he has granted me permission to post his thoughts here on my blog, and I appreciate the opportunity to do so.
The Parallel Books of Nephi
By Andrew Norman
What's a bifid structure?
In order to understand a bifid structure you have to understand parallelisms in Hebrew.
Hebrew will use two statements in order to convey more meaning or a different meaning than what each statement alone would mean.
Consider the following:
therefore they have drunk damnation to their own souls.
Therefore, they have drunk out of the cup of the wrath of God
Some Hebrew prophets would take this even further by writing their book and then halfway though writing a second half that mirrors ideas and concepts in the first half.
Consider the Book of Ezekiel
The Vengeance of the Lord against his People
The name of Ezekiel 1:3
His commission 3:25-27
Devine glory forsakes the temple 8-11
The vindication of the Lord through his People
The name of Ezekiel 24:24
His commission 33:1-9
Release from Dumbness
Divine glory returns to sanctify the land 43:1-5
(RK Harrison Introduction to the Old Testament 848-49)
Here is an example of why Nephi would use this style of writing. Compare 1 Nephi 21 with 2 Nephi 30.
In 1 Nephi 21, Nephi is quoting Isaiah who uses powerful imagery of people imprisoned in the dark and then being liberated. By writing a parallel chapter in 2 Nephi 30, he's able to build off Isaiah's imagery when describing the coming forth of the Book of Mormon and it's helping the Gentiles and House of Israel being restored.
A final note before getting started is that Nephi does a great job using mile markers of two verses that use almost identical words or themes to help you keep pace between the two books.
Below is the pairing of theme in First Nephi (1N) coupled with the matching theme in Second Nephi (2N).
In some cases I use the notation with verses using a .5 e.g. 1N1:19.5 which is used to indicate that it's in the second half of the verse.
Nephi's Bifid Structure:
1N1:1 Nephi highly favored of the Lord, having had a great knowledge of the goodness and the mysteries of God
2N1:1 Rehearsed unto them, how great things the Lord had done for them in bringing them out of the land of Jerusalem.
1N1:6-18 Lehi’s Vision and Destruction of Jerusalem
2N1:4 Lehi’s Vision of destruction of Jerusalem
1N1:19 Testified of Wickedness and Abominations (repent)
2N1:13-32 Tells sons to Repent
1N1:19.5 Expounded of …the things which he saw and heard, and also the things which he read in the book, manifested plainly of the coming of a Messiah, and also the redemption of the world.
2N2 Explanation of the need for Christ
1N2:1 Lehi commanded to depart
2N3 Joseph taken to Egypt and blessed by Lord
1N2:16, Nephi Prays and heart softened
2N12:12 Lehi spoken according to the feelings of his heart and spirit of the Lord
1N2:18.5-20 Brothers anger Nephi, Prays and is given blessings of the lord
2N4:13-35 Brother angry at Nephi, psalm of Nephi
1N2:21-24 Brothers will be cut off for not keeping commandments
2N5:6 Nephites leave and take all religious artifacts
1N3 Goes to get Brass Plates & Sword of Laban
2N5:10, 14 Teaches from Law of Moses from Brass plates and makes Swords from Sword of Laban
1N6 Describes what’s on his plates
2N5:30 Makes new plates
1N7:13-15 Jerusalem will be destroyed and why
2N6:1-15 Jacob tells of Jewish history and Babylonian exile.
1N7:16-18 Nephi bound and released
2N6:16 Lawful Captive delivered
1N8 Lehi’s dream
2N7:10-11 Walk in darkness (because of pride)
2N8 Isaiah talking about leaving sins behind and turning to God and being clothed in glory and enthroned
1N9:3 Small plates for the ministering unto the people
2N9:1 Jacob’s speech to the Nephites
1N10:3 Jews taken captive and brought back
7-10 John the Baptist and Baptism
11 Resurrection and purpose of Gentiles (12 Olive Tree Branches)
14 Gathering of Israel/ Grafting
2N9:2 Jews restored
8 Gentiles gathered and counted with House of Israel
1N10:17 Nephi desires to see
11:2 Nephi Sees
I went in depth on comparing 1N11 with 2N12 because the number of parallels was so striking.
- (a) 1n11:1 High Mountain
- (b)Tree of Life (Asherah found in Ephriamite temples) is love of Christ (could imply an equivalence of the temple with the love of Christ)
- (c) 24 People worship of Christ
- (d) 25 Iron Rod
- (e) 26 Condescension of God
- 27 Bapt by John
- (f) 28 Ministers to people
- (g) and I beheld that they cast him out from among them.
- Twelve Followers
- Angels administering to men
- (h) People afflicted with Devils and disease being healed by Christ
- 32: Christ judged by man
- 33 Crucified (could this be because you sacrifice humans to idols?)
- 34: Fight against the apostles
- (i) 35: Large and Spacious building Wisdom
- (i) 36: And it came to pass that I saw and bear record, that the great and spacious building was the pride of the world; and it fell, and the fall thereof was exceedingly great. And the angel of the Lord spake unto me again, saying: Thus shall be the destruction of all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people, that shall fight against the twelve apostles of the Lamb.
- 2N12:2 (a)High Mountain
- (b)Lord’s House
- (c) 3:And many people shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord…
- (d) and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths; for out of Zion shall go forth the law
Law = Scriptures
- (e) and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem
John 1:1 … and the word was God (The implication here is that the scriptures from Zion/America and that Christ is from Jerusalem
- (f) 4 And he shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people and [Swords to plowshares or peace]
- (g) 5 O house of Jacob, come ye and let us walk in the light of the Lord; yea, come, for ye have all gone astray, every one to his wicked ways
- (h) 6:Turning to false gods
- (i) 9-22 Vanity-Humbling by Lord
1N12:2 Wars and slaughter
2N3&4 War torn and remnants left behind
1N12:3 Numerous Cities
2N15:8 Wo to join house to house (huge cities)
1N12:5 Destruction of the land
2N5 Destruction of Vineyard but vs 24 and 25 mention destruction of the people
1N12:10 The twelve are cleansed through Christ and sent out
2N16 Isaiah ritually cleansed and sent out
1N12:11-12 The four generations after Christ and then destructions
2N7 Ahaz is told his kingdom would be safe but destruction would come (see vv 18-25) which was four kings from sign of the virgin birth
1N12:19 Nephites destroyed by not relying on Lord
2N18 Rely on the Lord to be safe. Ephraim wiped out.
1N13 Start of the Gentiles Kingdoms and church
2N9:11-12 Lord raises up Syria and Philistines ready to devour Israel
1N13 Gentiles to new world, scatter the Lamanites
2N10 Assyrian Conquests
1N13:12-36 Gentiles Humble Themselves, Mercy to Gentiles, BoM with Bible
2N11 Sprig of Jesse, peace, Righteous Ruler
1N13:33-37, Zion Blessed
2N12 Song of the return to Zion
1N14:3 Pit filled with those that dug it
2N14:15 Lucifer put in the pit
1N14:1-2 Gentiles numbered with House of Israel, blessed in promised land forever, no more to be confounded
2N13:3 Sanctified and Mighty called out before destruction of Babylon.
1N14:16 Wars and Rumors of Wars
2N14:29 More war with Palestine
1N15:2 Brothers can’t understand Lehi’s revelations
2N25:1 Nephi’s people can’t understand Isaiah
1N15:12 Lehi compared Israel to Olive tree by Spirt of the Lord
2N25:11 Nephi: And now I speak because of the Spirit which is in me
1N15:12 House of Israel Restored by Gentiles, Wicked rejected (VV 7 olive tree branch)
2N25:12 And notwithstanding they have been carried away they shall return again, and possess the land of Jerusalem; wherefore, they shall be restored again to the land of their inheritance.
1N15:13 Lehites dwindle in unbelief
2N25:12.5 Reject Christ because of hard hearts
1N15:13.5 -20 Lehites receive gospel from Gentiles and Jews restored
2N25: 17 And the Lord will set his hand again the second time to restore his people from their lost and fallen state. Wherefore, he will proceed to do a marvelous work and a wonder among the children of men.
& 2N25: 18 Wherefore, he shall bring forth his words unto them, which words shall judge them at the last day, for they shall be given them for the purpose of convincing them of the true Messiah
Note: I can’t find parallels in the text in order that allows the following two examples in 1Nephi so I paired them with what I could find that seemed logical and was before the mention of Moses and the serpents since that was a direct mile marker for me:
1N16 Travel through wilderness and call to build boat
2N25:9 God warns before destruction
1N17:23-40 Recalls God’s power with Exodus
2N25:10-19 Exiled, Christ, Scatter Restored
1N17:41 Moses and Serpents
2N25:20 Moses and Serpents
1N17: 45 Ye are swift to do iniquity but slow to remember the Lord your God. Ye have seen an angel, and he spake unto you; yea, ye have heard his voice from time to time; and he hath spoken unto you in a still small voice, but ye were past feeling, that ye could not feel his words; wherefore, he has spoken unto you like unto the voice of thunder, which did cause the earth to shake as if it were to divide asunder
2N25: 28 And now behold, my people, ye are a stiffnecked people; wherefore, I have spoken plainly unto you, that ye cannot misunderstand. And the words which I have spoken shall stand as a testimony against you; for they are sufficient to teach any man the right way; for the right way is to believe in Christ and deny him not; for by denying him ye also deny the prophets and the law.
1N17: 55 And now, they said: We know of a surety that the Lord is with thee, for we know that it is the power of the Lord that has shaken us. And they fell down before me, and were about to worship me, but I would not suffer them…
2N25:29.5 wherefore ye must bow down before him, and worship him with all your might, mind, and strength, and your whole soul; and if ye do this ye shall in nowise be cast out.
1N17:55.5 and honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long in the land which the Lord thy God shall give thee.
2N25: 30 And, inasmuch as it shall be expedient, ye must keep the performances and ordinances of God until the law shall be fulfilled which was given unto Moses.
1N17:42 And they did harden their hearts from time to time, and they did revile against Moses, and also against God; nevertheless, ye know that they were led forth by his matchless power into the land of promise.
1N25:24-26 Moses points us to Christ who gives us a remission of our sins.
1N18:11 Nephi Bound
2N26:10 Destruction of Nephites by brothers
1N18:16 Nephi prays and is released
2N26:15 Prayers of the faithful are heard
1N18:23-1N:19 Land in promised land and makes plates
2N26:16,17 Restauration to Lamanites, Sealed book
1N19 Nephi commanded to build a book and put more important doctrine in it
2N27 Coming forth of the Book of Mormon and sealed portion
2N28 Conditions of churches in apostasy
1N21 Light to gentiles and House of Israel
2N30 Gentiles converted and counted with House of Israel
1N22:2 Manifest by Spirit
2N31 How to get Holy Ghost
1N22:29 for I durst not speak further
2N32:7 the Spirit stoppeth mine utterance
1N22:30-31 I would that ye should consider that the things which have been written upon the plates of brass are true; and they testify that a man must be obedient to the commandments of God.
2N33:11 And if they are not the words of Christ, judge ye—for Christ will show unto you, with power and great glory, that they are his words